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Monday, June 27, 2011

Quenya Review Summary

< Lesson 5     

A concise summary of the forms we have learned so far:

The basic plural (“all the ~”, “~ in general”) is formed by adding either -r or -i.
   -r after vowel except -ë
   -r after -ië
   -i replaces -ë
   -i after consonant

Possessive Pronouns (when added to the end of nouns)
   after        after
  vowel    consonant
     -nya        -inya     my
     -lya         -elya      your (one person, formal/polite)
     -tya         -etya     your (one person, informal/familiar)
     -lda         -elda     your (a group)
     -rya         -erya     his/her/its (This is the “correct” form.)
     -lta          -elta      their
If the nouns is plural, add the plural ending -r after the possessive.

If the noun is plural, the adjective should also be in the plural:
     -a --> -ë
     -ë --> -i
     -ëa --> -ië

For any verb, add -r

Aorist present (timeless truths)
Basic verb: -ë , -i- if any other ending is added
     matë (one person) eats
     matir (several people) eat
A Stem: -a

Continuative present (happening now; is ~ing)
Basic Verb: lengthen vowel (add accent), add -a
     máta is eating
A Stem: lengthen vowel, unless it falls before a consonant cluster, replace -a with -ëa
     lantëa is falling

Past Tense
ends in -ë
There are enough exceptions to the patterns that you should look up the past tense for each verb.

Future Tense:
     -uva (replaces the -a on A-stem verbs)

Add -ë to basic verbs. Leave A-stem verbs unchanged.
Use á (do it!) or áva (don't!)
     á matë! eat!
same for singular and plural

Subject pronouns, when attached to a verb
     -nyë, -n                       I
     -lyë, -l                          you (one person, formal/polite)
     -tyë                               you (one person, informal/familiar)
     -ldë                               you (a group)
     -s,  (rarely -së)           he/she/it
     -ltë (variant: -ntë)     they( plural)
The plural pronouns do not need -r added.

Aorist Present Tense (general meaning; timeless truths)
     Lassë lanta.      A leaf falls.
     Lassi lantar.     Leaves fall.

Continuative Present Tense (right now)
     Lassë lantëa.     A leaf is falling.
     Lassi lantëar.    Leaves are falling.

Past Tense
     Lassë lantanë.     A leaf fell.
     Lassi lantanër.    Leaves fell.

Future Tense
     Lassë lantuva.     A leaf will fall.
     Lassi lantuvar.    Leaves will fall.

     Nai lassë lantuva!     May a leaf fall!
     Nai lassi lantuvar!    May leaves fall!

     Cé lassë lanta.          Maybe a leaf falls.
     Cé lassë lantanë.     Maybe a leaf fell.
     Cé lassë lantuva.     Maybe a leaf will fall.

(Singular and plural are the same.)
     Lassë, á lanta!         Leaf, fall!
     Á lanta, lassi!          Fall, leaves!
     Áva lanta, lassë!     Don't fall, leaf!

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