< Lesson 5
A concise summary of the forms we have learned so far:
The basic plural (“all the ~”, “~ in general”) is formed by adding either -r or -i.
-r after vowel except -ë
-r after -ië
-i replaces -ë
-i after consonant
Possessive Pronouns (when added to the end of nouns)
-nya -inya my
-lya -elya your (one person, formal/polite)
-tya -etya your (one person, informal/familiar)
-lda -elda your (a group)
-rya -erya his/her/its (This is the “correct” form.)
-lta -elta their
If the nouns is plural, add the plural ending -r after the possessive.
If the noun is plural, the adjective should also be in the plural:
-a --> -ë
-ë --> -i
-ëa --> -ië
For any verb, add -r
Aorist present (timeless truths)
Basic verb: -ë , -i- if any other ending is added
matë (one person) eats
matir (several people) eat
A Stem: -a
Continuative present (happening now; is ~ing)
Basic Verb: lengthen vowel (add accent), add -a
máta is eating
A Stem: lengthen vowel, unless it falls before a consonant cluster, replace -a with -ëa
lantëa is falling
ends in -ë
There are enough exceptions to the patterns that you should look up the past tense for each verb.
-uva (replaces the -a on A-stem verbs)
Add -ë to basic verbs. Leave A-stem verbs unchanged.
Use á (do it!) or áva (don't!)
á matë! eat!
same for singular and plural
Subject pronouns, when attached to a verb
-nyë, -n I
-lyë, -l you (one person, formal/polite)
-tyë you (one person, informal/familiar)
-ldë you (a group)
-s, (rarely -së) he/she/it
-ltë (variant: -ntë) they( plural)
The plural pronouns do not need -r added.
Aorist Present Tense (general meaning; timeless truths)
Lassë lanta. A leaf falls.
Lassi lantar. Leaves fall.
Continuative Present Tense (right now)
Lassë lantëa. A leaf is falling.
Lassi lantëar. Leaves are falling.
Lassë lantanë. A leaf fell.
Lassi lantanër. Leaves fell.
Lassë lantuva. A leaf will fall.
Lassi lantuvar. Leaves will fall.
Nai lassë lantuva! May a leaf fall!
Nai lassi lantuvar! May leaves fall!
Cé lassë lanta. Maybe a leaf falls.
Cé lassë lantanë. Maybe a leaf fell.
Cé lassë lantuva. Maybe a leaf will fall.
(Singular and plural are the same.)
Lassë, á lanta! Leaf, fall!
Á lanta, lassi! Fall, leaves!
Áva lanta, lassë! Don't fall, leaf!