Lihan Taifun (teaching)
Addition from last week #1:
There are also examples of "nai" used with the present tense. That would express a wish for something right now, rather than in the future.
"Nai Eru lye mánata." May Eru be blessing you.
"Nai amanya onnalya" May your child (be) blessed.
Addition from last week #2:
The word for "maybe" is cé (sometimes spelled ce; always pronounced “ke”).
Nolë caruva ta. Nolë will do that.
Cé Nolë caruva ta. Maybe Nolë will do that.
The form for giving commands.
Add -ë to basic verbs. Leave A-stem verbs unchanged.
Use á (do it!) or áva (don't!)
Á tulë! Come here!
Á matë ta! Eat that!
Áva matë ta! Don't eat that!
Á hlarë ómai Hínion. Hear the Voices of your Children. (from the Invocation at Olwë's healing ritual)
Pronoun Endings for Verbs
Tolkien changed his scheme of pronouns frequently. This is taken from a late-1960's source, and is Ardalambion's favorite.
A pronoun for the subject of the verb can (but does not need to be) attached to the end of the verb. Stand-alone pronouns do exist.
-nyë, -n I
-lyë, -l you (one person, formal/polite)
-tyë you (one person, informal/familiar)
-ldë you (a group)
-s, (rarely -së) he/she/it (/genderless singular “they”)
-ltë (variant: -ntë) they (plural)
These are used only if the subject of the verb is not explicitly stated. Use the “short” form if no other ending will be added; otherwise use the “long” form. The plural pronouns (such as –ldë and –ltë) do not need the -r plural ending on the verb.
lassë lanta a leaf falls lanta
lantas it falls lanta- -s (it)
lassi lantar leaves fall lanta- -r (verb plural)
lantaltë they fall lanta- -lte (they)
The pronoun endings -n, -l, -s, -t could also refer to the object of the verb. The subject-pronoun would go first, then the object pronoun. (-t would be “them”, plural)
Hantanyel I thank you.
Students would like more practice. Next time I teach this class, I will include more exercises. Next week will be review and practice.