Lihan Taifun (teaching)
Last session we established there is nothing corresponding to "a"/"an".
"The" is often left out, but if you do use it , for emphasis, the word is "i".
THE Forest (i-taurë), as opposed to any old forest (taurë)
Before a noun starting with a vowel, “the” is sometimes “in-”. Tolkien didn't leave a lot of examples, or explanation. Using “in-” before a vowel wouldn't be wrong.
in-Anar The Sun
Using “i” with a verb, to mean “the one who is doing” is somewhat idiomatic.
i-anta the one who is giving
Ignore this construction, if you find it confusing.
“Á” makes a statement into a command. So “á” means something like “Do it!”. “Áva” means “don't do it.”
Á holta fenda! Close (the) door.
Áva holta fenda! Don't close (the) door.
Áva anta Belenosen sikil! Don't give Belanos (a) knife.
Á anta Belenosen míri. Give Belanos (the) jewels.
We will discuss this more in the lesson on verbs.
Plurals end in -r or -i.
Á holta fendar. Close all the doors.
(These are the plurals for nominative and accusative case – in modern Quenya . They work for subjects and direct objects.)
There are no stand alone possessive pronouns...instead you have endings you add to a noun.
Á anta lassenya Olwen. Give my leaf to Olwë.
Á anta lasserya Olwen. Give Olwë his leaf. (or “Give her leaf to Olwë.)
lassënya (my leaf) is the same word as lassenya, since the ë is just marked so that English speakers will remember that the e is never silent.
Based on the few examples Tolkien left, people believe that, for words ending in a consonant, use “-inya” for “my”, and “-elya”, “-etya”, “-elda”, “-erya”, “-elta” for the other possessive pronouns.
Anarinya “My Sun”, a word Tolkien used
Tilioninya my Tilion
However, you would probably use an affectionate contraction in that last example, and make it Tilionya, when speaking to him. It would still be Tilioninya when speaking about him to someone else.
Using -ya for his/her/its would be common but sloppy – something you might hear on the playground, but would get marked down for writing on your homework. That is probably a case of consonants (especially r) getting softened when spoken.
What is the correct Quenya word for “queen”?
Tar High King (used by the kings of Númenor)
Tari High Queen
Elentari Star Queen, a title of Varda
Aran (local) king
There is no record of a female counterpart to “aran”, and it is not at all clear what a female version would be. Possibly “arani” or “aranil”, but that is wild speculation.
> Lesson 3