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Wednesday, September 28, 2011

Quenya Lesson 13 — Cases Part 2

Lihan Taifun (teaching)
AelKennyr Rhiano
Rhûn Darkmoon
Shawn Daysleeper

The three cases we looked at before marked parts of a sentence.  Now we come to cases for situations that, in English, would use a preposition.

Remember Nolë marë Alqualondessë. (Nolë lives in Alqualondë.)” ?
     Alqualondessë           in Alqualondë

Genitive case (“of”, sometimes “from”; indicates origin)
     the commands of Manwë

Possessive case (“of”, belonging to)
     The boundary between Possessive and Genitive is not always clear.

Locative case (“in”, “on”)

Ablative case (“from”, “out of”)

Allative case (“to”, “into”, “toward”)

Instrumental case (“because of”, “using”; indicates the reason or agent which causes)
Ael's grammer classes called this one “argumentative” case.


Which noun in the sentence takes the case?
     Alqualondessë           in Alqualondë
     Manweo                      of Manwë
Ael call those “adjectival nouns”.
Lihan call that “object of the preposition”.


Yes, Quenya does have prepositions. Sometimes there is more than one way to form a sentence. You would use either a case or a preposition, not both.
It is somewhat like the situation in English, where you could say:
     "Bring me the book."               (indirect object)
     "Bring the book to me."          (preposition)
Both sentences mean the same thing. They use different grammatical forms.

Prepositions are used exactly the same as in English. We don't need to spend a lot of time on them.

after (in time), in front of (in location)         apa, epë
before (in time)             nó
behind (in location)     ca
together with                 as
without        ú (use genitive noun) (or prefix au-, ava-)
betweeen                                      imbë
outside, beside (in location)     ara
in, within                                      mi
to, toward                                     ana
across, on both sides, over, beyond         arta
beyond              pella
under                no
above, over      or
on behalf of     rá (use a dative noun)
like, as              vë

and                          ar
except                      enga
on the contrary     anat
and yet                    ananta
because                   an


Because Quenya uses case endings so much, word order (which is very important in English) is much less important in Quenya.


Sometimes the Quenya cases make distinctions that are blurred in English.
     “the books of Dickens” that he wrote —> origin, genitive
     “the books of Dickens” sitting on his bookshelf
          - > possessive

     “Manwë's orders” (given by him) —> origin, genitive
     “Eonwë's orders” (given to him) —> possessive

     “a song from Alqualondë" —> origin, genitive
     "We sailed from Alqualondë" —> travel from, ablative

     "This is a song in Alqualondë."
          if you mean:
          This is a song from Alqualondë.—>  origin, genitive
          The song is physically located in Alqualondë.
               —> locative
          In Alqualondë this is a song, whereas elsewhere it is just loud noise. —> locative

Sometimes the line between cases is not sharp, and more than one “case” might work.
     "I hit it with a hammer." —> instrumental
     "That dent was made by a hit from a hammer" —> That could be genitive (originating from a hammer) or instrumental (caused by a hammer).

Just like in English, sometimes there is more than one “correct” way to express an idea.

> Lesson 14