This website contains archives of the Tolkien Discussion Group from 2009 to early 2013.

The discussion group continues to meet
in Second Life in Alqualonde the Swanhaven. Contact AelKennyr Rhiano in Second Life.

Wednesday, October 5, 2011

Quenya Lesson 14 — Cases Part 2, continued

< Lesson 13    

Lihan Taifun (teaching)
AelKennyr Rhiano
Rajani Milton
Shawn Daysleeper

GENITIVE case (“of”, sometimes “from”; indicates origin)
the commands of Manwë
     singular: replace -a with -o; otherwise add -o (even to other vowel endings)
     plural: add -on to the ordinary accusative plural (-ron after vowel except -ë ;   -ron after - ;   -ion replaces -ë ;   -ion after consonant)

POSSESSIVE case (“of”, belonging to)
The boundary between Possessive and Genitive is not always clear.
     singular: add -va after a vowel; add -wa after a consonant
     plural: replace with -iva; otherwise add -iva

LOCATIVE case (“in”, “on”)
     singular: add -ssë after vowels; add -essë after consonants, (except -l and -n, for which add -dë)
     plural: add -ssen after vowels; add -issen after consonants (presumably -den after -l and -n)

ABLATIVE case (“from”, “out of”)
     singular: add -llo after vowels; add -ello after consonants
     plural: add –llon or -llor after vowels; add -illon or -illor after consonants
           Either ending is acceptable.

ALLATIVE case (“to”, “into”, “toward”)
     singular: add -nna after vowels; add -enna after consonants
     plural: add -nnar after vowels; add -innar after consonants
also used idiomatically for “upon” the waves:

INSTRUMENTAL case (“because of”, “using”; indicates the reason or agent which causes)
     singular: add -nen after vowels; add -enen after consonants
     plural: replace with -inen; otherwise add -inen


These (plus nominative, accusative, and genitive from Part 1) are all the cases in Quenya. There are no more lurking in the wings.
Tolkien modelled Quenya after Finnish, which has about twice this number of cases.


Word order is much less important in Quenya than it is in English.


Manwë's orders (coming from Manwë) canwe Manweo
Eönwe's orders (issued to Eönwë) canwe Eönweva

belonging to Alqualondë Alqualondeva (possessive)
originating from Alqualondë Alqualondeo (genitive)
travelling from Alqualonde Alqualondello (ablative)
“Refugees from Alqualondë” could be either genitive or ablative.

“I am Olwë from Alqualondë.”         Nán Olwë Alqualondeo.
(Just what part of the sentence is “Olwë” in that example? We aren't sure.)
Since the verb for “is” can be left out when the sentence is still understandable without it, you can probably also just say:
“(I am) Olwë from Alqualondë.”      Olwë Alqualondeo.


“Thank you” is “Hantanyel
     hanta-     verb “thank”
     -nye-       subject “I”
     -l              object “you”
There is not one simple standard way to say “Please” in Quenya.


dog          huo
puppy     huincë (probably: “-incë” is the suffix meaning “cute little”)
Find the Alqualonde puppy  Á hirë huince Alqualondevo.

sharp     maica
dull        úmaice (probably: “ú-” is the prefix for “not”)

A collection of “new” Quenya words formed, following the rules of authentic Quenya:

travel     lelya-
Olwe goes from Alqualonde to Taniquetil. 
     Olwë lelya Alqualondello Taniquetilenna.

The city of Rómenna (on the eastern coast of Númenor) comes from “Rómen” (east) and “-nna” (allative - “toward”). (Yes, the correct grammar would be “Rómenenna”, but this is a city name, and “Rómenna” is more pronouncable.)


parma      (book)
                         singular        plural
genitive           parmo           parmaron          originating from a book
possessive      parmáva       parmaiva           belonging to a book
locative           parmassë      parmassen        in a book, on a book
ablative           parmallo       parmallon, parmallor       out of a book
allative            parmanna     parmannar       toward a book, into a book
instrumental  parmanen     parmainen       because of a book, using a book

lassë      (leaf)
                         singular        plural
genitive           lassëo         lassion            originating from a leaf
possessive      lasséva       lassiva             belonging to a leaf
locative           lassessë      lassessen        on a leaf
ablative           lassello       lassellon, lassellor       away from a leaf
allative            lassenna     lassennar        toward a leaf
instrumental  lassenen     lassinen          because of a leaf, using a leaf

Atan      (Human)
                         singular        plural
genitive           Atano           Atanion          originating from a Human
possessive      Atanwa        Ataniva           belonging to a Human
locative           Atandë      Atanden        in a Human, on a Human
ablative           Atanello       Atanillon, Atanillor       away from a Human
allative            Atanenna     Ataninnar       toward a Human
instrumental  Atanenen     Ataninen         because of a Human


(your turn)
belonging to Alqualondë
originating from Alqualondë
in Alqualondë
toward Alqualondë
away from Alqualondë
caused by Alqualondë

belonging to Tol Eressëa
originating from Tol Eressëa
in Tol Eressëa
toward Tol Eressëa
away from Tol Eressëa
caused by Tol Eressëa

belonging to home
originating from home
at home
toward home
away from home
caused by home

belonging to ships
originating from ships
on ships
toward ships
away from ships
caused by ships