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Tuesday, July 26, 2011

Quenya Lesson 10 — Cases — Nominative, Accusative, and Dative, part 2

< Lesson 9     
Lihan Taifun (teaching)
Rajani Milton
Shawn Daysleeper

Practicing nominative plurals:
     osellë (kinswoman) ––>  oselli
     Maia                            ––>  Maiar,
     Vala                             ––>  Valar
     elda (High Elf)          ––>  eldar


How do you pronounce í? The same as i, but the syllable will be accented. Why one-syllable words have accents is a mystery. Though it might explain why some one-syllable words are sometimes written with and sometimes without an accent.


Handy new vocabulary word: tula- tulta- (bring)
     “Á tulta _____" for the command, "Bring ____!"
     Á tulta parma!                Bring the book!
     Nienna tulta parmá.      Nienna brings the book.
     Ilmarë tulta parmar.    Ilmare brings the books. (Third-Age style)
     Ilmarë tulta parmai.    Ilmare brings the books. (Valinorian style)
     Ilmarë tulta lassí.          Ilmare brings leaves
     Shawn tulta parmai ar lassi.


I see a ship             Cenen cirya.
I see ships              Cenen ciryar, or ciryai in Valinorian
Cenen mar             I see home
Cenen marinya     I see my home

mírinya        my jewels,
osellenya     my sister

Give Maisy to Olwë.       Á anta Maisy Olwen
Give Maisy an apple!     Á anta Maisyn orva/orvá. (This is the kind of question that comes up when a language has to deal with “loan words” from other languages. Here I am assuming -y in “Maisy” acts the same as a Quenya -i ending. Other people might handle it differently.)

Á anta parma (parmá) osellenyan.              Give my sister the book
Á anta parmanya (parmanyá) Niennan     Give my book to Nienna.


Nar” (fire) is closely related to “Anar” (Sun). The months “Narvinyë”, “Nárië”, and “Narquelië” refer to the Sun, rather than literally fire. Possibly you could say the Sun is named “The Fire”.



after (in time), in front of (in location)     apa, epë
before (in time)             nó
behind (in location)     ca
together with                 as
without                           ú (use genitive noun) (or prefix au-, ava-)
betweeen                        imbë
outside, beside (in location)     ara
in, within                       mi
to, toward                      ana
across, on both sides, over, beyond     arta
beyond                            pella
under                              no
above, over                    or
on behalf of                   rá (use a dative noun)
like, as                            vë

and                          ar
except                     enga
on the contrary    anat
and yet                   ananta
because                 an

> Lesson 11