Lihan Taifun (teaching)
The subject of a sentence will be in "nominative case" -- which is the "ordinary, dictionary" form, just like we were doing in the first few classes.
Lassë lanta. A leaf falls.
"lassë" (leaf) is in the nominative case.
Lassi lantar. Leaves fall.
“lassi” is the nominative plural of lassë.
If you were doing something to a leaf, you would use a different case -- “accusative” case. The leaf is the “direct object” in the sentence.
Nolë rista lassé. (Valinorian form) Nolë cuts a leaf.
Nolë rista lassë. (Third Age form) Nolë cuts a leaf.
Ilmarë tulta lassí. (Valinorian)
Ilmarë brings leaves.
“lassé/ lassë” is the accusative case of lassë.
“lassí/ lassi” is the accusative plural case of lassë.
Á hirë míri! (Third Age form) Find jewels!
Á hirë mírí! (Valinorian form) Find jewels!
Cenen ciryá. (Valinorian) I see a ship.
Cenen ciryai. (Valinorian) I see ships.
Cenen mar. I see home.
Cenen marinya. (Third Age) I see my home.
Cenen marinyá. (Valinorian) I see my home.
The whole word "marinya" (my home) can be treated as a single word that can take a case.
A person receiving something, or receiving the benefit of something, would be the indirect object of the sentence, and would be in dative case. (Bring it to me. Do it for me.)
Give Maisy to Olwë.
“Maisy” is the direct object (accusative)
Olwë is the indirect object (dative)
Á anta Maisy Olwen.
Since “Maisy” is not a Quenya name, and the ending -y is functioning as a vowel, it is not entirely clear what the accusative case of Maisy is. Probably “Maisy” or “Maisý”. This is the kind of question that comes up when a language borrows words or names from other languages.
Give Maisy an apple.
Á anta Maisyn orva. (Third Age)
Á anta Maisyn orvá. (Valinorian)
“Apple” (orva) is the direct object (accusative); “Maisy” is the indirect object (dative).
> Lesson 12
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